The following term(s) meet your search criteria:

  • cage

    A secure area used to store selected products, such as cigarettes and aerosols.
  • calendar

    A chronological list by month of the major trade shows pertaining to the supermarket industry.
  • calendar marketing agreement (CMA)

    An agreement between a retailer and a manufacturer in which the retailer agrees to promote the manufacturer's products according to a specific schedule.
  • can code

    A manufacturer's code that describes the facility, shift, date and time that a product was packaged.
  • Can Manufacturers Institute (CMI)

    1625 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20036 (202) 232-4677
  • candy

    A category that includes candies, chewing gum and other confections.
  • cannibalization

    A competitive factor that reduces a product's sales, such as the debut of a competing brand.
  • canopy

    An awning or covering ledge that extends over the top of grocery fixtures. It may have lights or signs to draw attention to the products on display below.
  • CAO

    Computer-assisted ordering.
  • CAP

    Controlled atmosphere packaging.
  • car

    A transportation term that refers to a railroad car or railcar.
  • carload order

    A product that is shipped on a railcar and meets specific standards of weight and volume capacity, among others.
  • car-lot seller

    An agent that sells and ships products by railcar loads. For special promotions, the railcar serves as a storage unit for fast-moving merchandise.
  • carriage/shopping cart

    Four-wheeled baskets that customers use to transport merchandise to the checkout counters.
  • carrier

    A registered, licensed truck or rail company, which transports merchandise from one point to another. Also called a common carrier.
  • carry-in charge

    A service delivery fee that vendors charge retailers to unload and stage products in a store. See curb delivery.
  • carrying cost

    The cost of the capital employed in holding an asset (such as inventory) calculated as an interest rate (internal borrowing rate or opportunity cost of capital) times the amount of capital employed.
  • carryout clerk

    An employee who carries and loads groceries in a customer's vehicle.
  • cart corral

    A three-sided enclosure in a store's parking lot to collect shopping carts.
  • cart lock system

    A system that requires a coin, a quarter, to release a shopping cart.
  • cart, shopping

    A four-wheeled basket used to collect purchase items.
  • CASE

    Computer-aided software engineering.
  • case card

    A sign used to identify products.. Also called a stack card or header card.
  • case code

    A universal product code (U.P.C.). A product 's unique, machine-readable numeral printed on a product, cases and pallet loads.
  • case cost

    The wholesale cost of a case of products.
  • case count

    A receiving procedure that accepts an invoice's total-order case count instead of verifying the contents of each case.
  • case cube

    A standard measurement used to calculate a shipping container's volume.
  • case dollar return

    A retailer's gross profit calculated by subtracting the wholesale cost of a case from the retail price of a case.
  • case labels

    A product's identification and pricing label attached to a product or case when shipped.
  • case lot

    Unopened cases of products sold at a set price.
  • case pack

    The number of units of products packed in a case.
  • case ready

    Packaged, prepared, refrigerated or frozen foods that go from a shipping container to a sales floor.
  • case stocking

    A stocking procedure that removes a case lid and places a product on the shelf in an original container.
  • case weight

    The total weight of a case, a product and its packaging.
  • case wrap-arounds

    A decorative wrap around the base of a merchandising display. Also called base wrap.
  • case, refrigerated

    A refrigerated display unit for perishable products, such as dairy products or ice cream.
  • cases selected

    Includes only hard cases, that is, no repacks.
  • cash discount

    A percentage allowance deducted from an invoice under certain conditions, such as, two percent off the invoice if a customer pays the bill within ten days of receiving it.
  • cash flow

    The increase or decrease of cash resources, permitting money to be available for working capital, investments, and other expenses.
  • cash handling

    All operations that involve taking in or sending out money. Includes bonding employees; cash controls; coin shortages; making change at the checkout; forms; store deposits for banks. See accounting and controls; checkout operations; pilferage, security (cash protection).
  • cash store

    A retailer who sells goods for cash only.
  • cash wholesale grocer

    A wholesaler that sells to retailers for cash on deliveries or when the wholesaler allows credit on only one bill at a time.
  • cash-and-carry

    A policy that requires a wholesaler or retailer to pay cash upon delivery.
  • cash-and-carry wholesale grocer

    A wholesaler that allows retailers to select, pay cash and transport their own orders.
  • cashier

    See checker.
  • cashier's check

    See check, cashier's.
  • catalog

    A booklet of products, price lists and UPC codes used for electronic ordering. See preprint order form.
  • category

    A group of similar products; such as detergents, paper goods, etc.
  • category captain

    Within a category, the manufacturer's representative responsible for analyzing the product movement, assortment, inventory levels, promotion, buying and profitability for a specific geographic area or an entire chain.
  • category development index (CDI)

    A trend analysis that indicates the pace of sales of a product category in an area.
  • category killer

    A retailer, such as a mass merchandiser or a pet food superstore, able to undercut prices of most competitors because of high-volume sales.
  • category manager (CM)

    A person who analyzes product brands and mix, inventory levels, movement, shelf space allocation, promotions, buying, and profitability of a merchandise category.
  • category pricing

    A pricing policy that is used to determine the retail price for all products in a category.
  • cats & dogs

    Slow-moving products with few turns on the shelf.
  • CBT

    Computer-based training.
  • CDI

    Category development index.
  • CD-ROM

    Computer disk, read-only-memory. A disk that stores bits, bytes and multimedia.
  • ceiling cost

    A manufacturer's or supplier's limits to price increases on an item.
  • central billing

    A headquarters accounting department that processes invoices.
  • central buying

    A company headquarters' purchasing department.
  • centralized prepackaging

    A central facility that processes prepackaged perishables and ships the goods to stores.
  • cents-off

    A manufacturer's practice of printing a cents-off coupon on a product label to boost sales for that product.
  • cents-off coupon

    A certificate that provides for a cash refund or is deducted from the purchase price at the register.
  • certification sheet

    A listing of on-hand inventory amounts signed by a manager and turned in at inventory time.
  • certified check

    See check, certified.
  • CFC

    Chlorofluorocarbon.
  • chain

    A multi-unit retail operation with stores managed by a headquarters staff. Usually refers to a group of supermarkets under common ownership.
  • chain store

    A retail operation of a group of 11 or more stores, which operate under a similar name under one corporate ownership.
  • change agent

    Groups or individuals who use their skills and relationships to lead and implement change in an organization.
  • channel of distribution

    The producers and distributors of products from a farm to the table, a path that includes a grower, producer, manufacturer, broker, wholesaler, store and a consumer.
  • chargeback

    A manufacturer's bill to a retailer if the retailer fails to meet stated performance requirements.
  • check approval

    A manager's approval for a customer's check.
  • check drawer

    A drawer under a cash register that holds customers' checks.
  • check verification

    A store's electronic system that automatically verifies customers' checks.
  • check, cashier's

    A check drawn on the issuing bank; required when purchasing from a company or store that does not accept personal or company checks.
  • check, certified

    A check which is guaranteed by the bank issuing the check.
  • check, post-dated

    A check dated later than the date on which it was written.
  • checker

    A front end employee who rings up, totals and collects for a customer's order. Also known as a cashier.
  • checker accountability

    A process of verifying a till's accuracy, before and after a checker's shift.
  • check-in

    Receiving, checking and signing for merchandise delivered.
  • checking

    The process of recording customer purchases, taking payment, making change, processing coupons, bagging and all other functions inherent to the front end operation.
  • checkout operations

    Front-end operations, including the selection and training of checkers and baggers; parcel pickup and carryout services; front end scheduling; productivity; checkout equipment, including grocery bags, shopping carts, etc.; the universal product code, scanning and the electronic checkout; mandatory item pricing. See cash handling; electronic data processing; electronic funds transfer; food stamps.
  • checkout or checkstand

    A fixture in a supermarket where customer transactions occur and where the register, scanner, and bags are located. Also known as the front end.
  • checkout rack

    A rack in or near a checkout lane that displays high-impulse-buy merchandise, such as candy, gum, razor blades, cigarettes and magazines.
  • cheese rinds

    The exterior covering (wax coating, for example) on uncut cheese.
  • cherry picker

    A customer who shops at several supermarkets to find low-priced specials and promotions.
  • chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)

    A refrigerant chemical that the federal government has banned, which must be phased out of use by 2000.
  • circular

    An advertisement that looks like a newspaper ad distributed to homes. Also called a handbill or a flier.
  • class of trade

    A retail organization classed according to its method of doing business, such as a convenience store, supermarket, superstore, or a warehouse membership club.
  • classifications

    The family groups of products that a retail food store displays and sells.
  • clearinghouse

    A company that redeems consumer coupons from retailers and sends them to manufacturers for reimbursement.
  • client/server environment

    A network of computers; client refers to the desktop terminal; the server to the central processing unit (CPU).
  • clipstrip

    A display piece suspended from a gondola shelf, used to cross-merchandise small items.
  • close of business (COB)

    The last hour of a business day, or the last day of a week, month or year that business is conducted.
  • closed coded

    An expiration date on a product that a consumer cannot read.
  • club store

    A large retail store, (100,000 square feet or more), that sells only to members who pay an annual membership fee. Also referred to as a membership club store, warehouse club store or wholesale club.
  • cluster marketing

    A strategy to market products in stores with similar demographics.
  • CM

    Category manager.
  • CMA

    Calendar marketing agreement.
  • CMI

    Can Manufacturers Institute.
  • COB

    Close of business.
  • co-branded credit cards

    A credit card issued by a retailer and a credit card company.
  • COD

    Cash on delivery.
  • code date or dating

    A date and source code printed on an item to indicate its shelf life. Date codes simplify rotation and help prevent the sale of off-quality or spoiled products. See pull date.
  • code number

    An item number printed on a case or package by the manufacturer to indicate confidential information for pack identification or checking purposes. Accounts may use different code numbers to describe the same item.
  • COFC

    Container on a flat car.
  • coffin case or coffin freezer

    A waist-high fixture used to display frozen food, with a transparent door or no door for easy access. See upright freezer.
  • COGS

    Cost of goods sold.
  • cold spot

    An in-store bakery department that features baked goods furnished by an outside supplier or the supermarket's central bakery plant. No baking is done in the store. A cold spot department may have service or self-service cases and typically sells both unpackaged and prepackaged products.
  • cold storage

    A facility that stores frozen foods and perishable items that need refrigeration or special handling.
  • collateral

    An asset used to secure a loan.
  • collateral material

    Point-of-purchase and merchandising materials that support special sales efforts, such as seasonal or holiday promotions or a new product introduction.
  • collection

    A process of collecting monies owed.
  • collection letter

    A business letter requesting that a customer pay an overdue bill for products or services received.
  • color break

    The use of contrasting colors of products to create an eye-catching display.
  • column inch

    A newspaper measurement unit, one inch long and one column wide. Ad prices are multiplied by column inches.
  • co-marketing

    A joint effort between a retailer and a manufacturer to promote products.
  • combination deal

    A trade deal including at least two manufacturer's allowances, such as an advertising allowance and a purchasing allowance.
  • combination feature

    Multiple products offered together at a single unit price.
  • combination rate

    A media term for a special rate offered to companies that advertise in two or more publications, radio or television stations owned by the same company.
  • combination salesperson

    An employee of a broker or a manufacturer who has both wholesale and retail sales responsibilities.
  • combination store

    A food store and drugstore under one roof.
  • combo store

    A complete, full-line self-service market at least 30,000 square feet or larger with annual sales of at least 10 million dollars, 40 percent of which is non foods.
  • commissary

    A U.S. government-subsidized, nonprofit food store, operating on a military base. Operates on a non-profit basis and sells products at cost plus a small markup. Also, a centralized food preparation facility which distributes prepared product to stores within an area, ready for sale in in-store bakeries, delis and food service operations.
  • commission

    Compensation paid to a person or company for selling goods or services.
  • commission merchant (receiver)

    A warehouse operator that sells goods, primarily fresh fruits and vegetables and job-lots of groceries, on consignment for the owner. See consignment selling.
  • commissioned representative

    A salesperson who represents a grower, manufacturer or packer and sells goods on commission and does not warehouse, deliver or bill for products sold. See broker.
  • commodities

    Staple agricultural products. Basic raw materials used to make processed foods.
  • commodity number

    See code number.
  • common carrier

    A transportation company, such as a rail line or trucking firm. See carrier.
  • community or regional shopping center

    A center anchored by one or more large department or discount stores.
  • compactor, trash

    A device used to crush dry or wet garbage. Often found in many stores in two separate units-one compactor for paper and cardboard and one for all other materials.
  • compare and save signs/store signs

    Store signs that compare that store's price of an item with a competitor's price.
  • comparison shopper

    A person who compares several stores' prices of the same items and brands. Often done by a professional employed by a retailer or wholesaler.
  • competitive price

    The price that the same branded product is offered for sale by a competitive distributor. Also, the wholesale or retail price at which a product is sold when conforming to margins within the trade.
  • complete-line wholesaler

    See full-service wholesaler.
  • compressors

    Equipment fueled with compressed gas that runs a refrigerator.
  • computer assisted ordering (CAO)

    A computer software program that keeps track of inventory and orders items as needed. Also called Computer-Aided Ordering.
  • computer-based training (CBT)

    An self-paced, interactive, computerized tutorial or training process.
  • computerized management system

    An electronically controlled system that uses sensors to monitor and control a store's energy use.
  • concealed loss or damage

    Shortages or damaged products discovered after delivery.. See unconcealed loss or damage.
  • condiment

    A spice used to season foods.
  • conditioning

    A procedure that prepares produce for display and sale through proper handling techniques (such as trimming excess leaves on greens). Conditioning maintains the appearance and eating quality of perishables.
  • consignee

    The recipient of a shipment of goods.
  • consignment

    Items offered for sale on a cash or short-term credit basis. See commission merchant; guaranteed sale.
  • consignment selling

    A sales technique used for specialty or seasonal merchandise. The distributor pays for the merchandise when sold, or when the unsold product is returned after a predetermined period of time. The title for the merchandise for resale is held by the shipper until the merchandise is sold by the distributor.
  • consignor

    An individual or business that distributes goods for sale or assigns custody to another party.
  • consumer

    An end user of any product or service. A shopper or customer. The final link in the chain of product distribution: manufacturing, selling, wholesaling, retailing, consuming.
  • consumer advertising

    Advertising to motivate people to buy things or to shop at a store.
  • consumer cooperative

    A group, called a co-op, that forms to buy in bulk to save money or to buy particular foods. The co-op operates food markets as a nonprofit corporation to sell product to member-families or the general public.
  • consumer cooperative wholesale grocer

    A wholesaler that purchases, stores and distributes products to co-ops.
  • consumer direct

    Distribution of product direct from the manufacturer to the consumer, bypassing typical retail channels of trade.
  • consumer franchise

    See brand franchise.
  • consumer goods

    Merchandise destined for ultimate use by persons or households without further commercial processing.
  • consumer mix

    A demographic profile of customers that buy a product. For a product, the sales attributed to various types of consumers expressed as a percent of the product's total sales.
  • consumer panel

    A representative sampling of shoppers who, through discussion, enable managers to assess customer needs in a particular store or group of stores. Discussion often involves shopping convenience, store sanitation, and other factors that contribute to customer satisfaction.
  • consumer services

    Store services unrelated to actual sales, such as home delivery, carry-out and check-cashing,
  • consumerism

    Pattern of consumer behavior where products and services are evaluated for performance and quality.
  • container

    A train, truck, airplane or ship's cargo van used to transport goods. May be refrigerated or controlled-atmosphere unit. Standard sizes 10-, 20-, 24-, 35- and 40-foot units. Also referred to as a Cargo, Intermodal or Van Container.
  • container on a flat car (COFC)

    A container transported by railroad flat car.
  • continental-style case merchandiser (european-style case merchandiser)

    A long, sleek, fixed display case with a curved glass canopy and wood, tile, or metal accents.
  • continuity

    The exposure of consumers consistently, over time, to advertising intended to sell a product or service.
  • continuity program or promotion

    A long-term store promotion using items such as china, encyclopedias or cutlery to attract customers to a store.
  • continuous replenishment (CRP)

    An ordering process based on the exchange of electronic data between a store and a distributor that indicates when a store is running low on a product and needs a new shipment of the item. CRP programs reduce inventory levels and operating costs by having products delivered on a frequent, as-needed basis. With CRP, consumer demands--based on scan data, warehouse movement, and sales forecasts-- drive warehouse replenishment orders and shipping. In the most common form--vendor managed continuous replenishment-- the distributor's warehouse transmits data daily to the vendor on inventory levels and store orders; the vendor is responsible for creating the orders necessary to ensure that the warehouse can meet the retailer's product needs.
  • contract features

    A list of products scheduled for a wholesale or retail sales promotion. The distributor of the products receives either money or an allowance for a successful sales event. See proof of performance.
  • contract store

    A non-affliated food store supplied by a wholesaler on a cost-plus basis or by special arrangement. See cost-plus.
  • control book

    A sales record that logs trends by product and season.
  • control coupon

    An advertising coupon that limits the number of items bought on sale.
  • control label

    An exclusive company label used in a certain geographic area.
  • controllable expense

    Expense items, such as payroll and shrink, that can be reduced by managers.
  • controlled atmosphere packaging (CAP)

    A product packaged in a low-oxygen, nitrogen-rich wrap that preserves freshness.
  • controlled brand

    A merchandise brand distributed by wholesalers, retailers or groups of stores that do not compete with each other. See franchised label; private label.
  • controlled interviews

    A practice that sets buying days in a published schedule. Interviews are often limited to a certain length of time, and special interviews by appointment only.
  • convection oven

    An oven with circulating air that cooks more uniformly and at lower temperatures than does a conventional oven.
  • convenience food

    Prepared products, such as frozen or microwavable foods, that are quick and easy to fix.
  • convenience products

    Easy-to-use necessities which people usually buy frequently and/or can use immediately
  • convenience store

    A small, easy-access food store with a limited assortment. Many convenience stores also sell fast food and gasoline.
  • conventional supermarket

    A large, self-service, retail food store (up to 30,000 square feet), with moderate pricing and selection, and annual sales in the $2 to $8 million range. Usually includes a meat, produce, dairy, and grocery department.
  • conventional wholesaler

    A wholesaler that sells goods to retailers at a price which includes an unrevealed margin, not at cost-plus.
  • conversion allowance

    Money that a manufacturer pays to cover a wholesaler's costs for a change in a product's package size or design. See slotting allowance.
  • conveyance

    A legal term referring to a property transfer from one party to another.
  • cook-chill

    A cooking and food preservation process for food-service products. Food is cooked, packed, sealed and quick-chilled in a plastic pouch and stored at a temperature below 40 degrees F.
  • cooler

    A refrigerated holding unit in a warehouse or store for perishables.
  • cooperative (co-op) store

    A consumer cooperative owned food store operated by corporate management. Multi-store and single store owners band together to achieve the advantage of chain-like distribution patterns.
  • cooperative advertising

    A manufacturers' ad paid for in whole or in part by the manufacturer, with a retailer's name, logo and location inserted in the ad slick. For magazines: the participation of two or more advertisers in a single ad which includes each manufacturer's products. In national media: distributors or dealers sharing with the manufacturer the cost of an ad, usually in return for a listing in the ad. See advertising allowance.
  • cooperative allowance

    A manufacturer's deal for a distributor or retailer to perform certain duties.
  • cooperative group or co-op

    A group of independent retailers that own and operate a warehouse to buy in bulk to save money..
  • cooperative marketing

    A group of independent producers that sells together.
  • co-packer

    A packing company for several different manufacturers that uses manufacturer-supplied products and packaging and charges manufacturers per-unit.
  • copy

    The written or spoken part of an advertising message.
  • corporation

    A group created by a legal charter that may buy or sell or enter into contracts.
  • co-sponsoring

    Two or more advertisers that share the costs of advertising on a television program.
  • cost

    The dollar amount paid for any goods or services. Retail price equals cost price plus profit.
  • cost and freight

    A shipping term where the seller is responsible for paying freight, but not insurance charges to a destination.
  • cost of goods sold (COGS)

    The cost paid by a company (including freight) for the goods it sells to its customers. COGS is computed by adding the cost of the inventory at the beginning of the period to the cost of goods received by the store (or warehouse) during the period, then subtracting the cost of the inventory at the end of the period.
  • cost per thousand (CPM)

    An advertising sales term used to calculate how much it costs an advertiser to reach a thousand people.
  • cost, distribution

    A term that refers to freight, storage and advertising costs of delivering a product to a wholesaler/retailer.
  • cost, fixed

    An expense that does not change regardless of sales or productivity, such as insurance and rent.
  • cost, unit

    The price of one unit of a product. It includes any related variable costs and any applicable fixed cost allocations that may apply.
  • cost-plus

    A method of pricing where merchandise is billed at cost, with a percentage mark-up, or dollar charge, added for services rendered.
  • count

    The number of units or items in a case or package.
  • coupon

    A discount certificate redeemed at the cash register. Coupons are distributed in manufacturer's newspaper ads, freestanding inserts, affixed to a product package, by direct mail, electronically in store or via the internet.
  • coupon chargeback

    Manufacturer notice to a retailer and/or a coupon clearinghouse that payment for coupons submitted has been refused and that they are billing the retailer and/or clearinghouse for the face value of the coupon plus handling.
  • coupon drawer

    A checkstand drawer to store coupons.
  • coupon drop

    A manufacturer's coupon distributed by various means at a particular time.
  • coupon redemption

    The act of exchanging a discount certificate for a credit at a cash register. Retailers are later reimbursed for the face value of the coupons plus handling charges.
  • coupon redemption report

    A report that lists the number redeemed and value of all coupons.
  • coupon scanning

    The practice of ringing up coupons at the register.
  • coupon stuffing

    An illegal practice of ringing coupons outside of an order and taking the money.
  • courtesy clerks

    Store employees responsible for bagging orders and carrying them to the car for the customers. Also referred to as carry-out clerks.
  • courtesy counter (customer service)

    An area in a store dedicated to customer services, such as check-cashing, product returns, money orders, lottery tickets, bottle refunds, fax service, Western Union, etc. Usually located at the front of a store and is always staffed. Also called Service Desk.
  • CPM

    Cost per thousand.
  • CRC

    Count and recount.
  • credit memo

    A voucher for credit for goods or services.
  • credits

    Outdated, damaged, or unsalable merchandise where a refund can be obtained from another source.
  • crisping

    Soaking leafy produce in water to restore freshness.
  • critical period

    A period of time between restocking during which the sales volume of a store is at its highest level.
  • cross contamination

    A transfer of bacteria from one product to another by either direct or indirect contact.
  • cross docking

    A process that takes place at a distribution center where arriving product is immediately broken down and reassembled into palletized store orders or moved to a temporary staging area. Product is then loaded onto waiting trucks for store delivery without ever going into storage.
  • cross-merchandising (cross-selling)

    A display of related product, such as cereal and bananas, charcoal briquettes and starter fluid, pasta and tomato sauces.
  • crown end display

    A massive display at the end of a grocery or frozen food aisle.
  • CRP

    Continuous replenishment.
  • cryovac

    A proprietary term for vacuum packaging material, which has entered the language to mean all vacuum packaging, like Xerox, Kleenex or BandAid.
  • cube

    The cubic measurement (volume) of a quantity of product, calculated by multiplying its height by width by depth. Cube measurement is associated with the capacity of trucks, warehouse, backroom or shelf space.
  • cube out

    The act of reaching the capacity of product that can be shipped in a truck or other transportation vehicle. See weigh out.
  • cube utilization

    Loading a truck or other transportation vehicle with merchandise in order to fill as much of the horizontal and vertical space as possible.
  • cubic capacity

    The capacity of a vehicle, stated in cubic feet.
  • cubing