The Freedom of Information Act, or FOIA, is a valuable and important statute to ensure governmental accountability and transparency. But as the Court has repeatedly held when interpreting FOIA’s exemptions, Congress also designed FOIA to protect some specific information from mandatory disclosure. Exemption 4, for instance, protects “trade secrets and commercial and financial information obtained from a person and privileged or confidential.” Such commercial information often has little to do with the government’s operations and much more to do with how private businesses compete with one another. Here, for example, massive amounts of SNAP-related data is public, including how much is spent at the state and even ZIP-code level; that data may reveal information about government expenditures, but demanding store-level data necessarily requires divulging a particular retailer’s carefully guarded information about market share or clientele. FMI is simply urging the Supreme Court to apply the ordinary meanings of the words Congress used in Exemption 4, including the ordinary meaning of “confidential,” to shield from mandatory disclosure private commercial information.